Saturday, June 22, 2013

New words for me

So I had to learn 100 new English words for the lexical acquisition class I took. Here they are, warts and all.

  1. polysemous – adj – about word that has several meanings (e.g. bank1, bank2)
  2. tumbleblog – n – a multimedia blog that isn't as text heavy as a more prototypical blog, a blog in the style of tumblr.
  3. fameball – n – "a derogatory term for someone who has an unquenchable desire for fame" from
  4. magnetar – n – neutron star with an extremely powerful magnetic field, the decay of which powers the emission of high-energy electromagnetic radiation, particularly X-rays and gamma rays
  5. social steganography – n – the practice of users of social media, often teens, to cloak messages with double meaning. (A status update of "Always look on the bright side of life" seems innocuous, unless you know the context of the song and that the author of the comment is making allusion to it. It allows for outsiders to see one reading and insiders to see another. Example from this paper.)
  6. bibelot – n – tschochke, geegaw, but with the overtones that explicitly French borrowings bring to English
  7. postern – n – a door or gate that isn't the primary door or gate
  8. proddie – n – a protestant, use is derogatory and Irish
  9. saccade – n – the jerking motion of the eye across the field of vision
  10. swag – n (possibly adj too) – style, Urban Dictionary has a lot of interesting info on this word, which in some communities may have positive connotations and negative connotations in others. An are-you-joking origin: an acronym for "Secretly We Are Gay", but UD suggests a much more plausible origin in Scots English. More likely origin: an abbreviation of swagger.
  11. incel – adj (also n) – involuntarily celibate
  12. teknonym – n – a name taken from a child (e.g. Mahmoud Abbas, chairman of the PLO, is also known as Abu Mazen, which refers to his first son Mazen)
  13. Einzelgänger – n – the opposite of a doppelgänger, unique
  14. ambilingual – adj – a fully fluent and balanced bilingual, the Platonic ideal of bilingualism
  15. arseward(s) – adj – perverse (obsolete), screwed up; I had assumed that back asswards was some sort of play on ass backwards, but no.
  16. intersubjective – adj – occurring between two minds (e.g. When two people use a word, it is intersubjective because they both know the word and agree on its meaning.)
  17. moil – v – to work hard; often collocated with toil – toil and m.
  18. progymnasmata – n – a curriculum of rhetorical development in antiquity
  19. phatic – adj – words that pertain to social relationships rather than their strict meaning
  20. decolletage – n – a low cut neckline in women's fashion
  21. poorism – n – tourism in poverty stricken areas (rhymes with tourism); probably a journalism word as I heard it on the radio (NPR, Worldview, 4 June 2013)
  22. binge watch – v – watching a whole season or series of movies in a very short time, possibly even one sitting: synonym for marathon, though I'm not sure what the exact difference might be
  23. crepitus – n – medical term for cracking knuckles (or any other joint really)
  24. survivorship – n – the state of being a survivor (thanks Wiktionary, I'd have never guessed that)
  25. stanchion – n – an upright bar or post that provides support to something else; the vertical bar in a a leadlight
  26. leadlight – n – a decorative window made with small panes of glass separated by metal bars (though I'm not sure how this is different from stained glass except maybe there's no color in the glass of a leadlight?)
  27. raceway – n – an electrical conduit that is a decorative element rather than hidden behind a structure
  28. spiv – n – a criminal (specifically a con man or black marketeer) who dresses in a flashy manner; probably obsolete
  29. paresthesia – n – pins and needles feeling in a numbed or "asleep" body part
  30. doodlesack – n – bagpipes; possibly obsolete
  31. ergodic – adj – applies to dynamic systems whose average behavior is the same over time when compared to average phase states; applies to Markov chains and thermodynamics
  32. comedo – n – a blackhead
  33. be spoiled – v – to have spoilers told to you
  34. bogie – n – the wheel unit of a train, typically with two axles
  35. journal – n – the part of the axle that lies on bearings
  36. dinkum – n – hard work (regional to Derbyshire)
  37. dinkum – adj – good, excellent, honest (regionalish to Australia)
  38. ology – n – a science; a backformation, its use probably indicates low social status on the speaker's part
  39. pinion – – gear type either within another gear with cogs on the inside or the gear that meshes with the rack
  40. rack – n – a bar with cogs, as if it were a gear built flat instead of round
  41. threequel – n – a second sequel, probably in distinction to part three of a trilogy 
  42. bargainous – adj – an outstanding deal, opposite of spendy
  43. dee – n – police Detectives
  44. slashdot – v – to overwhelm with messages
  45. half handle – n – one of the two pieces of a knife handle that are not the metal part of the knife
  46. tang – n – the metal part of the knife between the two half handles
  47. bolster – n – the thickened metal part of a knife just past the handle
  48. heel – n – the portion of a knife's blade that extends below the handle
  49. guard – n – the taper on the metal between the blade and bolster
  50. back – n – the edge opposite the cutting edge of the knife
  51. skimmer – n – a kitchen utensil with a handle and a round, perforated dish on the end that is used to take food out of liquid or skim things off the top of soups
  52. slot – n – the space between the tines of a fork
  53. demitasse – n – a small cup for coffee, usually used for espresso
  54. ramekin – n – an oven to table dish that is used for individual portions
  55. cork ball – n – the inner cork portion of a baseball
  56. yarn ball – – the outer wound portion of a baseball
  57. cover – n – the leather outside of a baseball
  58. shrift – n – the act of confession, related to shrive
  59. emulous – adj – ambitious, though possibly without the negative connotations (hard to say what connotations ambitious had when RL Stevenson was writing)
  60. coquetry – n – effort to attract attention, often directed from a woman to a man
  61. risk – v – to take a risk (heard in a live interview on the radio, is this a nonce form caused by the ease of zero derivation in English?)
  62. chuff – v – to make a noisy puffing sound like a steam engine (heard every day thanks to Thomas and Friends, defined thanks to class) Source: oh, the horror,
  63. chuff – v – to deliberately and obviously fail a standardized test
  64. chuffed – adj – pleased
  65. shunt – v – to move a train from one track to another or move cars from one train to another (again courtesy of Thomas and Friends)
  66. head – n – the flared load-bearing part of a railway rail
  67. web – n – the thin(ner) part of a rail between the base and head
  68. fishplate – n – the piece that joins two railway rails together
  69. safety line – n – the textured and colored strip at the edge of a train station platform
  70. trough – n – long, narrow area of low pressure, named because of its shape
  71. cornice – n – portion of roof that overhangs the main structure for rain protection
  72. pilaster – n – rectangular column that sticks out of a wall but is structurally insignificant
  73. fore edge – n – the edge of a book opposite the binding
  74. square – n – part of book board that overhangs the block; a book cornice
  75. action – n – the part of a piano that transfers motion between the key and hammer; possibly generalized to (musical) keyboard function
  76. nacelle – n – /ˈnæsl̩/ at M-W, /nəˈsɛl/ at Wiktionary – the boxy part of a windmill between the hub and the mast (and just what is the difference between a mast and stanchion?)
  77. swart – adj – dark; related to swarthy
  78. percy – adj – personal (of a drug stash), which has led to a meaning of unreal or legit
  79. bpw;dr – initialism – behind pay wall; didn't read
  80. avidity – n – greed, intensity of desire
  81. catholicity – n – universality; appears to relate to catholic and Catholic
  82. cheval-glass – n – a full length mirror on a stand that allows the mirror to pivot
  83. arras – n – tapestry, since Arras (a city in France) was a major source of them
  84. tippet – n – a shoulder covering garment, an animal skin draped on the shoulders is a typical example, a scarf worn loose around the neck is another example
  85. bartizan – n – (also bartisan) a wall with projecting battlements like the Spanish fortifications in Cádiz or San Juan (though the word is Scottish in origin)
  86. retronym – n – a term modified to make the original sense explicit as in acoustic guitar, natural turf or white milk; apparently coined by Frank Mankiewicz
  87. annuitant – n – someone who gets an annuity
  88. absquatulate – v – to run off; a joke coinage from the 19th century
  89. hangry – adj – anger caused by hunger; a joke portmanteau of the 21st century (not the only portmanteau of hungry I've seen, just that this one was new)
  90. nyctophilia – n – a love of the night
  91. cat vacuum – v – to be doing something other than the writing you ought to be doing (like collecting words rather than preparing a book I ought to be)
  92. adiabatic – adj – involving no heat transfer into or out of the working fluid of thermodynamic processes; highly associated with process
  93. hegemony – adj – a notion of a power structure involving domination of one group over another; more narrowly a power structure that is not questioned—how Things Are The Way They Are and why they stay that way
  94. memristor – n – passive electrical element (resistor, capacitor and inductor are the other three) caused by imperfect metal-metal contact; portmanteau of memory resistor
  95. coherer – n – radio detector that predates crystal detector; some are memristors
  96. articulated bus – n – one of the really long busses with two halves
  97. slug – v – to carpool informally but not as informal as hitchhiking;, usually to take advantage of HOV lanes (similar to the expresses on the Kennedy, but for cars with multiple passengers) or lower tolls
  98. slug – n – the person who gets a slugged ride; not the driver
  99. tender – n – another name for coal car
  100. tank engine – n – a steam engine that does not have a tender, but carries all fuel and water on-board